Bioremediation has existed in the world since approximately 600BC, this process is believed to have involved the ancient Roman's utilisation of microorganisms to treat their waste water. Although this process is still used today it has been greatly modified and expanded in order to treat a vast rage of additional contaminants.

external image RomanDailyLifeTrade&TravelPlacard.jpg
This image shows how important water canals and systems were to the Ancient Romans in regards to resource
and transport methods. This is why bioremediation was so important during this time.

Science and technology dominated most major events in 1972, this was the year in which the Compact Disc (CD-ROM) was introduced to the world. The formulation of the CD-ROM would come to be one of the most significant breakthroughs in the technological scene in that time. However, 1972 was also the year in which the concept of bioremediation was recognised as the first commercial application upon a case study (refer lower for more information on this case study), unknown at this time this concept was to become one of the most significant and useful future prospects in the environmental field.

Since 1972 bioremediation has become greater developed as a means of cleaning up spills of gasoline, diesel, heavy metals and other easily degraded petroleum products (National Research Council 1993). The process although time consuming presents itself as a process that may become utilised by businesses and corperations involved in transport, mining and manufacturing all over the world.

In recent days the debate revolves primarily on the safety of the use of the products of biotechnology, in order to avoid this from continuing to occur throughout industry applications adequate guidelines for safety have been suggested ad enforced by law ( However during the time it was first installed, much speculation and debate was raised as it was not fully understood how these complex processes occurred in the means of converting hazardous wastes or pollutants into less harmful forms.

The process of bioremediation was reportedly devised by George M Robinson in the 1960's during experimentation with dirty jars and the introduction of microbes this was however not applied until the 1972 clean out of the fuel holding tanks on the RMS Queen Mary. Robertson was the assistant county petroleum engineer for Santa Maria, California ( Robinson then pioneered the idea of drying out bacteria cultures and using this as the basis for commercial use this was known as the concept as 'Bug-Brew'.

As Bug Brew was so effective when utilsed on numerous forms of pollutants in a degraded system he then went on and formed US Microbiotics Incorperated (nicknamed 'BUGS') in 1997. US Microbics is headquartered in Carlsbad, California. Robinson was first and foremost the founder of this corporation which was the first corporation formed around the various commercial uses of microorganisms, this marks the age of ramification of disasters using environmentally safe methodology.

Inclusive advertisement often helps the cause this is an example of a holistic approach to influencing commercial
use of bioremediation. (

external image BUGS-logo.gif
U.S Microbics Inc. logo. (

The bioremediation process is becoming more extensively utilised throughout industry due to numerous cases of succession in the event of disaster ramification, created by both anthropogenic and natural causes. This is because bioremediation shows promise as an alternative to conventional environmental cleanup technologies, the number of vendors selling bioremediation has increased dramatically in recent years (National Research Council, 1993).

However differing from the original microbial ramification strategy, bioremediation practices can be found in other forms such as phytoremediation and mycoremedaition. There are many more forms of bioremediation however all forms will not be explored in this wikipedia.